Global Energy Outlook

Explore the definitive comparative analysis of global energy projections


May 20, 2020 (Updated March 24, 2023)


Data Tool

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3 minutes


The Global Energy Outlook (GEO) provides a unique “apples-to-apples” comparison of global energy projections by leading international organizations and corporations. It provides insight into the range of potential futures for energy at global, regional, and national levels, with projections varying due to distinct assumptions regarding energy technologies and public policies. The GEO includes projections and historical data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Equinor, the International Energy Agency (IEA), the International Renewable Energy Agency, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Shell, and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Read the 2023 GEO Report or read the press release.

Our 2023 Global Energy Outlook is accompanied by an interactive data tool, which allows users to visualize, compare, and download harmonized data from each projection:

How the GEO Works

The Global Energy Outlook data tool allows users to explore harmonized data and projections from the world’s leading energy organizations. You can compare across or within outlooks using the following tools:

Measurement: Select which metric you want to visualize, such as primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions, electricity generation, and more.

Data series: Select how you’d like to compare the data. Select “outlooks and scenarios” to see projections from each organization on your topic of interest. Select “Regions,” “Sectors,” or “Fuels” to compare across regions, sectors, or fuels within your chosen outlook.

Filters: Find the data you're looking for by filtering between different outlooks, regions, fuel types, and sectors. Note that these options will change depending on your chosen Data Series.

Methods and Documentation

For a detailed description of our harmonization process, please see:

For additional documentation on the web tool, including definitions and details for measurements, sectoral groupings, fuels definitions, and regional groupings, please see:

Previous Global Energy Outlook Reports

Previous Global Energy Outlook reports are listed below.

Reports from 2018 and prior:

Reports for IEF Annual Symposium on Energy Outlooks

RFF President and CEO Richard Newell has partnered with the International Energy Forum (IEF) to prepare intercomparison reports in support of the IEF’s annual Symposium on Energy Outlooks. To view these reports, please visit the page below.


If you have comments or suggestions for the GEO team, get in touch by contacting our researchers.

BNEF. 2021. New Energy Outlook 2021.

US Energy Information Administration. 2021.International Energy Outlook 2021.

Equinor. 2021. Energy Perspectives 2021: An uncertain future.

International Energy Agency. 2021. World Energy Outlook 2021.

IRENA. 2021. World Energy Transitions Outlook: 1.5C Pathway.

OPEC. 2021. World Oil Outlook 2021.

Shell. 2021. Energy Transition Scenarios.

US Energy Information Administration. 2021. World Energy Projection System (WEPS) Module Documentation.

Koomey et al. 2019. Inside the Black Box: Understanding Key Drivers of Global Emission Scenarios. Environmental Modeling and Software (111)1.

IEA. 2019. World Energy Outlook 2019. p. 772.


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